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Depression

Evidence-based Overviews   |   Treatments & Self-Management    Associated Conditions

 Videos and Podcasts    |   Decision Aids and Toolkits   |   Work Accommodation

Depression Organizations  |   Further Resources   |      Recommended Books    |     Suicide Resources

British Columbia Resources    

          

It is estimated that over 350 million people live with depression, and it is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Depression often starts at a young age, and it affects women more commonly than men. The burden of depression and other mental health conditions is on the rise globally.

Depression is different from occasional mood fluctuations and short-lived emotional responses to challenges in everyday life. Someone experiencing depression is struggling with persistent feelings that interfere with everyday life. Depression effects one’s emotions, physical health, relationships and work.

Symptoms also include behaviours, thoughts, and feelings:

Physical

  • Tiredness and lack of energy
  • Sleeping too much or waking up in the night
  • Eating too little or too much
  • Weight loss or gain
  • No interest in sex
  • Aches and pains

Behavioural

  • Crying, lying in bed in the day, not able to get up in the morning
  • Withdrawing from and avoiding friends and others
  • Drop in recreational activities
  • Drop in work or school attendance
  • Neglecting responsibilities and personal appearance
  • Becoming restless and agitated

Thoughts              

  • Self-criticism (I'm really hopeless)
  • Self-blames (It's all my fault, I should have done better)
  • Thoughts of death and suicide
  • Critical thoughts about others (He's not much of a friend)
  • Concentration and memory problems. Problems making decisions

Feelings

  • Sadness
  • No pleasure
  • Irritability
  • Guilt
  • Anxiety
  • Numb inside


People with chronic pain are at a higher risk of experiencing depression. Depression and pain can produce a cycle where one feeds into the other causing higher pain levels and greater depression. While using medication, exercise or other treatments for chronic pain is beneficial, it’s also important to pay attention to your mental state. You could start by finding ways to lower your stress levels, engaging in positive thinking exercises, and other self-management resources. Seeking counselling with a psychologist or counsellor who is trained in cognitive behavioral therapy may also be useful.​

Evidence-based Overviews  

  
  
Chronic Illness & Mental HealthNational Institute of Mental Health, NIH (US)
DepressionMedLinePlus - National Institutes of Health (NIH) (US)
DepressionCentre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)
Depression Fact SheetHere to Help Canada
Depression OverviewCanadian Mental Health Association
Fact Sheet on DepressionWorld Health Organization
Modifiable worker risk factors contributing to workplace absence: a stakeholder-centred best-evidence synthesis of systematic reviews Work Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute
Modifiable workplace risk factors contributing to workplace absence across health conditions: A stakeholder-centered best-evidence synthesis of systematic reviewsWork Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute
Pain and Your EmotionsMedline Plus
Scientific Evidence about Treatments for DepressionAustralian National University - National Institute for Mental Health Research
What is Depression?Mood Disorders Society of Canada

​Associated Conditions   

Anxiety

People living with chronic physical health conditions experience depression and anxiety at twice the rate of the general population.  View our Anxiety page for more information​, and for resources and tools that can help you to keep anxiety at bay in spite of your chronic pain.​

​Related WWDPI Webinars​

​Videos and Podcasts  

  
  
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy – Real StoriesAnxiety BC
Exercise Against Anxiety and DepressionAnxiety and Depression Association of America
Helping a Loved One Access HelpMood Disorders Association of BC
Managing Depression: A Self-help Skills Resource for Women Living With Depression During Pregnancy, After Delivery and BeyondCentre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addiction (CARMHA), Simon Fraser University
Mindfulness WebinarsWork Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute
Self-Help ExercisesWalkAlong – University of British Columbia
Webinar videos on anxiety and depression from the Anxiety and Depression Association of AmericaAnxiety and Depression Association of America
WWDPI webinars – Chronic Pain and Mental HealthWork Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute
WWDPI webinars - Self-ManagementWork Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute

​Decision Aids and Toolkits 

  
  
Are You Depressed? QuizMood Disorders Association of Ontario
Depression QuizNational Institute for Mental Health Research - Australian National University
Depression Symptom ChecklistsMood Disorders Association of Ontario and Mood Disorders Society of Canada
Doctor Discussion Guide (for Depression)Mood Disorders Association of Ontario and Mood Disorders Society of Canada
iTunes U course: Understanding Depression Through Lived ExperienceUniversity of British Columbia
Managing Depressive ThinkingCentre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addiction, Simon Fraser University
Mood FXUniversity of British Columbia
Mood GYMCentre for Mental Health Research - Australian National University
My Path: Develop a Management PlanMood Disorders Association of Ontario and Mood Disorders Society of Canada
Patient Decision AidsOttawa Hospital Research Institute
Self-Help Exercises - WalkAlong: Your Journey to Mental WellnessUniversity of British Columbia
Sleep and Depression ToolsSleep and Depression Laboratory - Ryerson University
The Antidepressant Skills WorkbookBC Mental Health & Addiction Services and Simon Fraser University

​Work Accommodation  

  
  
Accommodation Ideas for Mental Health Disorders / Job Accommodation NetworkU.S. Department of Labor
An evidence-informed guide to supporting people with depression in the workplaceInstitute for Work and Health
Antidepressant Skills at Work: Dealing with Mood Problems in the WorkplaceBC Mental Health & Addiction Services and Simon Fraser University
Antidepressant Skills WorkbookCentre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addiction (CARMHA), Simon Fraser University
Disability prevention at your workplaceWork Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute
Guarding Minds at WorkCentre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addiction (CARMHA), Simon Fraser University
Interventions to help depressed people resume workCochrane
Job demand and control interventions: a stakeholder-centered best-evidence synthesis of systematic reviews on workplace disability. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. April, 2015Work Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute
Mental Health Interventions in the Workplace and Work Outcomes: A Best-Evidence Synthesis of Systematic Reviews. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. January, 2016.Work Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute
Mental Illness and Substance Use in the WorkplaceBC Partners for Mental Health and Addictions
Modifiable worker risk factors contributing to workplace absence: a stakeholder-centred best-evidence synthesis of systematic reviews Work Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute
Modifiable workplace risk factors contributing to workplace absence across health conditions: A stakeholder-centered best-evidence synthesis of systematic reviewsWork Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute
Non-modifiable worker and workplace risk factors contributing to workplace absence: A stakeholder-centred synthesis of systematic reviews. Work Journal. August, 2015Work Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute
Social Support and Supervisory Quality Interventions in the Workplace: A Stakeholder-Centered Best-Evidence Synthesis of Systematic Reviews on Work Outcomes. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. October, 2015.Work Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute
What I Wish I KnewMoodFX, University of British Columbia
Work with UsMood Disorders Society of Canada and The Arthritis Society
WWDPI Webinars - Workplace Mental HealthWork Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute

​Depression Organizations 

  
Anxiety and Depression Association of America
British Columbia Psychological Association
Canadian Mental Health Association
Canadian Mental Health Association – find your local CMHA
Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments: Depression
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health: Depression
Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health & Addiction
Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction - BC Chapter (MBSRBC)
Mood Disorders Association of BC
Mood Disorders Association of Manitoba
Mood Disorders Association of Ontario
Mood Disorders Society of Canada
Richmond Mental Health Consumer and Friends Society (RCFC)

​Further Resources  

  
  
"Psychology Works" Facts Sheet: Chronic PainCanadian Psychological Association
"Psychology Works" Facts Sheet: DepressionCanadian Psychological Association
Are You Feeling Suicidal?HelpGuide.org
BC HealthGuideHealthLink BC
Cognitive Behavioural Self-Management Course [pdf]Get Self Help UK
Cognitive-behavioural therapy: an information guide [pdf]Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Coping with Suicidal ThoughtsCentre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addiction, Simon Fraser University
Crisis Centres Across CanadaThe Canadian Association for Suicide Prevention
Dealing with Difficult EmotionsGet Self Help UK
Depression / HelpGuide.orgHelpguide.org
Depression and PainHarvard University
DepressionHurts.caMood Disorders Society of Canada and Mood Disorders Association of Ontario
Here to Help
How Can CBT Help?Get Self Help UK
Improving Mental HealthBC Partners for Mental Health and Addictions
Learn more about the different types of antidepressantsCentre for Addiction and Mental Health
Living Life to the FullCanadian Mental Health Association
Mental Health / HelpGuide.orgHelpGuide.org
Mindful BreathingGet Self Help UK
Psychology Fact SheetsCanadian Psychological Association
Psychology Works Facts Sheet: Chronic Pain [pdf]Canadian Psychological Association
Self Help for Depression Get Self Help UK
Stress ReductionWork Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute
What is Depression? [pdf]Mood Disorders Society of Canada

​Reccommended Books  

  
A Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Workbook – By Bob Stahl and Elisha Goldstein
ACT on Life not on Anger – By Georg Eifert, Matthew McKay and John Forsyth
Calming the Rush of Panic – By Bob Stahl and Wendy Millstine
Don’t let your Emotions Run Your Life – By Scott Spradlin
Handbook of Adult Resilience - History of the Research on Resilience - John W. Reich, Alex J. Zautra, John Stuart Hall
Living Beyond Your Pain: Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Ease Chronic Pain - JoAnne Dahl PhD, Tobias Lundgren MS
The Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Workbook – By Matthew McKay, Jeffrey Wood, and Jeffrey Brantley
The Mindfulness and Acceptance Workbook for Anxiety – By John Forsyth and Georg Eifert
The Worry Trap – By Chad Lejeune

General Mental Health Resources  

Suicide Resources   

  • Coping with Suicidal Thoughts – Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addiction, Simon Fraser University
  • Crisis Centres Across Canada - - call a Crisis Centre if you are in crisis, or if you need support for someone you know. If you cannot find a crisis centre near you, any of the listed 24 hour toll free numbers in your province will be able to help - The Canadian Association for Suicide Prevention 

If you are in a crisis and require emergency assistance, visit your local emergency department or call in Canada  911

British Columbia Resources 

  • Mental Health Information Line – provides taped information on provincial mental health programs as well as symptoms, causes, treatment, support groups and publications relating to a number of mental illnesses. This is a 24 hour line.  1-800-661-2121   Vancouver: (604) 669-7600
  • Helping a Loved One Access Help – video provides tips for accessing BC resources to help a loved one – Mood Disorders Association of BC

References

Depression Statistics

Symptoms List source

 

Reviewed by Marc White PhD, Scientific & Executive Director, WWDPI ​(See Review Criteria)

Last Modified: 5/14/2018 3:54 PM

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